November 2021

Hydrogeological Research: A Comprehensive Analysis of Its Importance and Use

Hydrogeologique research is an assessment of the subsurface geologic and hydrologic parameters in any particular location. The data acquired from such a study can be used to create a hydrogeological mapping. It encompasses a comprehensive examination of various liquid layers of rocks along with their filtering potential. Moreover, the intrinsic potential of these materials to hoard or repel water is assessed. The strength of the water flowing through fractures or pores is measured, as well as the pressure, kind, and quality of the subsurface water.

To estimate the subsurface level of water, hydrogeological research is conducted. Before digging a bore well, hydrogeological research is carried out to assess the purity and amount of water accessible at a given location. Underground water is popular as a greater source of water supply to freshwater. Following are some of the reasons behind this:

  • Contamination is less likely, when it is at least 20 meters far from sanitary activity
  • Water purifies itself naturally, as it passes over sands and stone
  • Borewells are kept closed, which reduces the risk of infiltration
  • The temperature of water at the subterranean level is at a pleasant level, irrespective of seasonal fluctuations
  • Due to the water sources placed at a relatively deeper level in the summer, there are more odds of water availability

Components of hydrogeological research

Hydrogeological research can be simple or comprehensive. The following are the components of a basic survey:

  • Determine the end-requirements users for the area and amount of groundwater necessary
  • Boreholes in the area
  • The water quality is assessed
  • An assessment of the river catchment
  • Guidelines for borehole design and building
  • Risk assessment for health or the environment
  • The volume of water that is expected to be extracted from a specific place

Thorough hydrogeological research examined a few more characteristics, such as establishing the existence of aquifers, assessing the catchment’s risk, and analyzing the water source, particularly for issues regarding pathways. The hydraulic parameters of the aquifers, as well as the direction and rate of groundwater flow, are all validated.

Final Thoughts

Groundwater is a sustainable alternative that could potentially address a water problem in specific locations in the current world scenario when pure, unpolluted water is scarce. However, determining the amount and quality of available groundwater at the needed location might be difficult. Groundwater sources can be identified using hydrogeological survey techniques, as well as the expected yield and quality of the water.

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How Your Business Could Benefit from Using a PISP

A central element of the revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2) is the access to customers’ payment accounts held by banks through application programming interfaces (APIs). PSD2 stipulates that banks will provide access to payment accounts for two new categories of third-party providers: Payment Initiation Service Providers (PISPs) and Account Information Service Providers (AISPs).

The PSD2 designates banks and other similar institutions as Account Servicing Payment Service Providers (ASPSPs), in an attempt to distinguish them from new players who access customer accounts through so-called open APIs.

What Exactly are Payment Initiation Service Providers (PISPs)?

The first playing field for PISPs will be online payments. A PISP can create and issue payment instruments and initiate online and mobile payments to beneficiaries (businesses and individuals) directly from the payer’s account. In order to access a customer’s account, a PISP must have the customer’s permission and approval. After the payment account is accessed, the PISP initiates a payment instruction that debits the account. It is essential for the PISP to know the account information of the beneficiaries (the customers) to which the funds are being sent. As a result, PISPs need to establish connections and manage relationships with payment service users (PSUs) and their account holders, the banks (ASPSPs).

In that regard, PISPs offer a range of benefits to both the customer and the business receiving payments. Here’s how:

A Streamlined PISP Payer Experience

With recent advances in mobile payment technology, PISPs can help you deliver a streamlined experience to your payers.  You authenticate a transaction on your mobile device using biometrics, just like you would with your normal banking app.  Customers can check out using their mobile devices, or they can check out using decoupled methods of authentication on your website.

When you offer customers the option to initiate a payment, you provide them with a convenient, secure, and fast payment method. By enhancing payment processes and user experience, your business could gain more customers, generate more transactions, and stand out from the competition.

PISP Security

As the bank transfers are only initiated after a payer authenticates the transaction with Strong Customer Authentication (SCA), PISPs drastically reduce the possibility of payment fraud.

Likewise, with the PISP model, payers never share their credentials with merchants or payment gateways, but only enter them directly into their banks.  As a result, both consumers (fraud later on) and merchants (data breaches down the road) are less inclined to commit fraudulent acts, helping to build trust among both customers and potential new customers when they make purchases.

Cost efficiency of PISPs

A PISP allows money to be collected and set in real-time, so that you can see the status of payments around the clock.  When the payer completes payment initiation, the bank transfers the payment to the merchant.  Most PISP payments reach the merchant’s account in less than 10 seconds, according to studies.

As another advantage of accepting payments through PISPs, payers are limited in their ability to reverse or claim chargebacks.  With this approach, whenever a merchant is paid, the funds in the merchant’s account are cleared and immediately accessible by the merchant for their cash flow needs without the need for any acquisition companies or other payment providers to reserve funds.

In general, PISPs charge more competitively and transparently than traditional financial institutions. However, depending on the type of card, card fees can vary, and additional fees can apply in the event of fraud or chargebacks.  PISPs are also considered an attractive alternative, since they charge lower transaction fees and eliminate failed payment costs.

PISP Simplicity

The customer can establish a Direct Debit Instruction with Open Banking or Payment Initiation Service.  It allows Direct Debits to be conveniently set up on mobile devices for the collection of subscription payments, including telecoms, utility bills, and fitness club memberships.

To Conclude


With the ease of use and efficiency of PISPs, businesses can stand out from their competitors in the payment service space. Therefore, if you are growing a business you need a payment solution that can grow with you. PISPs can offer a level of flexibility which goes far beyond that offered by  traditional banking lines.

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